Luke 2:1-7 = Luc 2:1-7

December 26, 2007 at 2:23 am | Posted in Luke = Luc | Leave a comment
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Luke 2:1 = Luc 2:1 En ces jours-là parut un décret de César Auguste, en vue du recensement de toute la terre.

jour (nom masculin) – day
ce jour-à – that day
ces jours-là – those days

parut (passé simple de paraître) – to appear; to be published; to come out; to be noticed; to look; to seem

passé simple
je parus
tu parus
il,elle parut
nous parûmes
vous parûtes
ils, elles paruent

décret (nom masculin) – decree

vue (nom féminin) – sight; view
en vue – in sight
en vue de – with a view of; with the idea of
This simply renders a Greek infinitive indicating purpose (ἀπογράφεσθαι APOGRAFESQAI).

ἀπογράφεσθαι APOGRAFESQAI – present passive infinitive of ἀπογράφω APOGRAFW meaning to enter into a list, register. Here it is used of official registration in tax lists.
ASV, RSV – “that all the world should be enrolled”
NRSV, NKJV, ESV – “that all the world should be registered”
NIV – “that a census should be taken of the entire Roman world”
REB “for a census to be taken throughout the Roman world”
NET “to register all the empire for taxes”
AV “that all the world should be taxed”
Revised Luther (1985) “dass alle Welt geschätzt würde”
Elberfelder (1991) “den ganzen Erdkreis einzuschreiben”

recensement (nom masculin)
[de population] – census
[d’objets – inventory]
[Militaire] – registration

terre (nom féminin) – earth; world; ground, land; soil

Luke set the birth of Jesus against the backdrop of Roman imperial history.

Caesar Augustus (Octavius) ruled from 31 B. C. – 14 A. D.

Caesar was the cognomen of Gaius Julius Caesar. “Caesar” came to be used as the title for emperor. Latin Caesar = Greek Καῖσαρ KAISAR. (Compare the words “Kaiser” and “Czar”.)

Caesar Augustus (Octavius) was born in 63 B. C., the son of a politician Gaius Octavius and Atia, the niece of the Roman emperor Julius Caesar.

When emperor Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March, March 15, 44 B. C., the empire was ruled by three rulers, the so-called Triumpvirate, Octavius, Lepidus, and Mark Antony. Eventually, Octavius defeated Lepidus in 36 B C., as well as Cleopatra and Mark Antony in 31 B. C. Octavius became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

The Roman senate gave him the title “Augustus” (or “the August One”, worthy of divine favor and human adulation) in 27 B. C., acknowledging his supreme position as emperor.

Other first century Roman emperors included the following.
Tiberius (14 – 37 A. D.)
Gaius Caligula (37 – 41 A. D.)
Claudius (41 – 54 A. D.)
Nero (54 – 68 A. D.)
Galba (68 – 69 A. D.)
Otho (69 A. D.)
Vitelius (69 S. D.)
Vespasian (69 – 79 A. D.)
Titus (79 – 81 A. D.)

Luke 2:2 Ce premier recensement eut lieu pendant que Quirinius était gouverneur de Syrie.

premier, ière [adjectif] – first

eut (passé simple de avoir)
lieu (nom masculin) – place
avoir lieu = se produire – to take place, to occur

passé simple
j’eus
tu eus
il, elle eut
nous eûmes
vous eûtes
ils, elles eurent

pendant (préposition) – during, for
pendant que (locution conjonctive) – while

était (imparfait de être) – to be
j’étais
tu étais
il, elle était
nous étions
vous étiez
ils, elle étaient

gouverneur (nom masculin) – governor

Syrie (nom féminin) – Syria

(Perhaps later I’ll deal with some of the issues regarding the chronology of Quirinius and Luke 2.)

Luke 2:3 = Luc 2:3 Tous allaient se faire recenser, chacun dans sa propre ville.

allaient (imparfait de avoir) – to go

imparfait
j’allais
tu allais
il, elle allait
nous allions
vous alliez
ils, elles allaient

recenser – to take a census of, to make a census of; to take an inventory of

chacun, –e (pronom indéfini) – each (one); everyone, everybody

propre (adjectif) – own; suitable, appropriate

ville (nom féminin) – town; city

Luke 2:4 = Luc 2:4 Joseph aussi monta de la Galilée, de la ville de Nazareth, pour se rendre en Judée dans la ville de David appelée Bethléhem, parce qu’il était de la maison et de la famille de David,

monta (passé simple de monter) – to go up

passé simple
je montai
tu montas
il, elle monta
nous montâmes
vous montâtes
ils, elles montèrent

se rendre – to give up, to surrender; to go to

appelée (participe passé de appeler) – calle
appelé – m. s.
appelée – f. s.
appelés – m. pl.
appelées – f. pl.

maison (nom féminin) – house; building; home; family; household

Luke 2:5 = Luc 2:5 afin de se faire inscrire avec Marie, sa fiancée, qui était enceinte.

afin de – to, in order to

inscrire – to write down; to put down; to register; to enroll; to enlist
faire inscrire – to register

enceinte (adjectif féminin) – pregnant, expecting

Luke 2:6 = Luc 2:6 Pendant qu’ils étaient là, le temps où Marie devait accoucher arriva,

pendant (préposition) – during; for
pendant que – while

(adverbe) – there; here

temps [nom masculin] – time

devait (imparfait de devoir)

imparfait
je devais
tu devais
il, elle devait
nous devions
vous deviez
ils, elles devaient

accoucher (verbe intransitif) – to be in labor; to have a baby, to give birth

arriva (passé simple de arriver) – to arrive; to come; to happen

passé simple
j’arrivai
tu arrivas
il, elle arriva
nous arrivâmes
vous arrivâtes
ils, elles arrivèrent

Luke 2:7 = Luc 2:7 et elle enfanta son fils premier-né. Elle l’emmaillota et le coucha dans une crèche, parce qu’il n’y avait pas de place pour eux dans l’hôtellerie.

enfanta (passé simple de enfanter) – to give birth to

passé simple
j’enfantai
tu enfantas
il, elle enfanta
nous enfantâmes
vous enfantâtes
ils, elles enfantèrent

emmailloter (passé simple de emmailloter) – to wrap up (a baby); to bind (up), to bandage (a finger, a foot

passé simple
j’emmaillotai
tu emmaillotas
il, elle emmaillota
nous emmaillotâmes
vous emmaillotâtes
ils, elle emmaillotèrent

coucha (passé simple de coucher) – to put to bed; to put up; to lay out; to lay down; to inscribe

passé simple
je couchai
tu couchas
il, elle coucha
nous couchâmes
vous couchâtes
ils, elles couchèrent

crèche (nom féminin) – nativity schene, crèche; day nursery, day care center

The φάτνη FATNH was a manger or crib, a feeding trough for animals, normally of stone.

il y a [verbe impersonnel] – there is; there are
il y avait – [imparfait] – there was

eux (pronom personnel) – them

hôtellerie (nom féminin) – inn; guest quarters (in an abbey); hotel business; hotel management

The κατάλυμα KATALUMA means lodging place.

Micah 5:2 = Michée 5:1

December 21, 2007 at 11:34 pm | Posted in Micah = Michée | Leave a comment
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Et toi, Bethléhem Éphrata
Toi qui es petite parmi les milliers de Juda,
De toi sortira pour moi
Celui qui dominera sur Israël
Et dont l’origine remonte au lointain passé,
Aux jours d’éternité.
(Micah 5:2 = Michée 5:1)

parmi [préposition] – among, amongst

millier [nom masculin] = mille – thousand

The Hebrew phrase here ‏בְּאַלְפֵי יְהוּדָה be’alfei Yehudah, has the word ‏אֶלֶף ‘elef, meaning “thousand”. The word was used in the sense of a “group of a thousand, military, part of a tribe”, it came to mean clan. Then it took on the sense of region (Deuteronomy 33:17; 1 Samuel 23:23; Joshua 22:30; here in Micah 5:2 [5:1 in Hebrew and French]) and even later tribe (Numbers 1:16; 10:36; 22:14; Joshua 22:21, 30; Isaiah 60:22.

The AV, ASV, NKJV translations in English would be similar to the French. But most English translations use “clans”. (Cf. Latin Vulgate milibus; Revised Luther, 1985 “Städten”; Buber / Rosenzweig, 1997, & Elberfelder, 1991,”Tausendschaften”; Einheitsübersetzung, 2004 “gauen”; Menge, 1994, “Gaustädten (= Hauptorten)”; Targum Jonathan ‏בְאַלפַיָא)

sortira [futur simple de sortir] – to go out; to leave

futur simple
je sortirai
tu sortiras
il, elle sortira
nous sortirons
vous sortirez
ils, elles sortiront

dominera [futur simple de dominer] – to dominate; to govern; to tower above; to control, to master, to overcome; to be in the dominant position, to be on top; to predominate

futur simple
je dominerai
tu domineras
il, elle dominera
nous dominerons
vous dominerez
ils, elles domineront

dont [pronom relatif] – whose, of which

remonte [présent de remonter] – to go back up, to come back up; to come back; to return; to go back

lointain, –e [adjectif] – faraway, distant, remote

passé, –é [participe passé de passer]
passé [adjectif] – last; past; faded
passé [nom masculin] – past; past tense

Hebrew ‏מִקֶּדֶם miqqedem – “from prehistoric times, since primeval time” (HALOT 5.a); ; AV, ASV, NRSV, NIV, ESV, NKJV “from of old”; REB “far back in the past”; NET “in the distant past”

jour [nom masculin]

éternité [nom féminin]

Micah 5:2 (1) was used in Matthew 2 by the chief priests and scribes when Herod the Great (37 – 4 B. C.) asked them about the location of the birth of the messiah. (Matthew 2:4-6)

The gentile magi (wise men) ascertained from the star in the East (τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ TON ASTERA EN THi ANATOLNi) the general location of “the king of the Jews”. However, they needed the Scriptures to get the specific revelation of the birth of the anointed one (messiah, christ).

There were two places named “Bethlehem” in the Bible.

1) Bethlehem of Judah – 5 miles SSW of Jerusalem – It is mentioned by name thirty-eight times in the Hebrew scripture and eight times in the New Testament.

2) Bethlehem in the north in the tribe of Zebulun (Joshua 19:15; Judges 12:8-10) – The modern Arabic village Beit Lachm is 7 miles SW of Nazareth.

(The numbering in Hebrew and French translation is different than that in English translations. One might note that the original Hebrew had no numbering. It was added later.)

Isaiah 7:14 = Ésaïe 7:14; Matthew 1:22-23 = Matthieu 1:22-23

December 17, 2007 at 3:16 am | Posted in Isaiah - Ésaïe, Matthew = Matthieu | Leave a comment
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C’est pourquoi le Seigneur lui-même vous donnera un signe,
Voici que la jeune fille est enceinte,
Elle enfantera un fils
Et lui donnera le nom d’Emmanuel
. (Isaiah 7:14)

le Seigneur [nom masculin] – the Lord
donnera [futur de donner] – give

futur simple
je donnerai – I shall give
tu donneras – he will give
il, elle donnera – he, she will give
nous donnerons – we shall give
vous donnerez – you will give
ils, elles donneront – they will give

Note the endings on the “infinitive form” to create the simple future.

signe [nom masculin] – sign

Note that “la jeune fille” is rendering the original Hebrew Ha’almah ‏עִמָּנוּ אֵל [HF(ALMFH].
“The” Greek translation of the original Hebrew is παρθένος [PARQENOS], which, in French, is vierge (virgin).

enceinte [adjectif féminin] – pregnant, expecting

enfantera [future de enfanter] = mettre au monde – to give birth to, to bring forth
This word is used in a literary way in the Bible.

futur simple
j’enfanterai
tu enfanteras
elle enfantera
nous enfanterons
vous enfanterez
elles enfanteront

fils [nom masculin] – son

nom [nom masculin] – name

Emmanuel – Most English translations use “Immanuel”, following a transliteration of the original Hebrew. This French translation follows a transliteration of the Greek translation of the Hebrew original.

In Hebrew ‘im means “with”. ‘immanu means “with us”.
In Hebrew ‘el means “God”.
So Immanuel means “God with us” or “God (is) with us”.

It is good first to look at how this verse was understood in the time the prophet Isaiah and of King Ahaz of Judah.
Then one looks at the verse as understood in a prophetic tradition.

(One might also note the use of “Immanuel” or “Emmanuel” in Isaiah 8:8.)
Isaiah 7:14 is used by the angel that appeared in a dream to Joseph in Matthew 1.

Matthew 1:22 Tout cela arriva afin que s’accomplisse ce que le Seigneur avait déclaré par le prophète:
23 Voici que la vierge sera enceinte;
elle enfantera un fils
Et on lui donnera le nom d’Emmanuel,
ce qui se traduit: Dieu avec nous.

arriva [passé simple de arriver] – Here it has sense of “happen, take place”.

passé simple
j’arrivai
tu arrivas
il, elle arriva
nous arrivâmes
vous arrivâtes
ils, elles arrivèrent

afin que – so that; in order that

s’accomplisse [subjonctif de s’accomplir] – to come true

présent et imparfait subjonctif
que j’accomplisse
que tu accomplisses
qu’il, elle accomplisse
que nous accomplissions
que vous accomplissiez
qu’ils, elles accomplissent
avait déclaré [plus-que-parfait de déclarer] – to announce, to state, to declare; to say

plus-que-parfait
j’avais déclaré – I had announced
tu avais déclaré
il, elle avait déclaré
nous avions déclaree
vous aviez déclaré
ils, elles avaient déclaré

Note that the plus-que-parfait (pluperfect or the past perfect) is formed by using the imperfect tense (imparfait) of avoir with the past participle (participe passé) of déclarer.

par [préposition] – by

prophète [nom masculin] – prophet

vierge [nom féminin] = pucelle – virgin

[Note that in Matthew 1, the French translates the Greek word παρθένος (PARQENOS) as vierge, which does mean “virgin”.]

sera [futur simple de être]

futur simple
je serai
tu seras
il, elle sera
nous serons
vous serez
ils, elles seront

se traduittraduire – translate
se traduit – “is translated”

présent – voix: pronominale [reflexive]
je me traduis
tu te traduis
il, elle se traduit
nous nous traduisons
vous vous traduisez
ils, elles se traduisent

Note that Matthew structures his Gospel with an inclusio, an inclusion. At the beginning of the Gospel, he understands the angel’s message to Joseph that Jesus is Emmanuel, i. e., God with us.
At the end of the Gospel of Matthew, in the Great Commission, Jesus says, “…and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age.” “Et voici, je suis avec vous tous les jours, jusqu’à la fin du monde.” (Matthew 28:28) These promises of Jesus’ presence bracket the Gospel of Matthew.

In addition, in the middle of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus also promises His presence, “For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them.” (Matthew 18:20) “Car là où deux ou trois sont assemblés en mon nom, je suis au milieu d’eux.”

The name Emmanuel or Immanuel occurs four times in “the” so-called Old Testament Pseudepigrapha in Greek. Here are English translations of these four passages.

3 Baruch 4:15 But God sent his angel Sarasael, and said to him, ‘Arise, Noah, and plant the shoot of the vine, for thus says the Lord: “Its bitterness shall be changed into sweetness, and its curse shall become a blessing, and that which is produced from it shall become the blood of God; and as through it the human race obtained condemnation, so again through Jesus Christ the Immanuel (Emmanuel) will they receive in Him the upward calling, and the entry into paradise.”’

Sol_a 6:8 But I say: “Explain to me by what angel are you thwarted.” He said: “By God Almighty. He is called by Hebrews Patike, the one who descends from the high places. He is (called) by the Greeks Emmanuel (Ἐμμανουήλ). Of him I am afraid, trembling. If someone adjures me by Eloi, a great name of his power, I vanish.”

Sol_a 11:6 But I said to him: “I adjure you by the name of the great God Most High — by what name are you thwarted, with your legion?” The demon said: “By the name of the one who submitted to suffer many things by men, whose name is Emmanouel (Ἐμμανουήλ), who also now has bound us and will come to torment us by the water at the cliff. With three characters he conjured up, moving about.

Sol_a 15:11 “And who should receive such authority over spirits, except that one? Who the first devil shall seek to tempt, but shall not be able to overpower him, whose name’s cipher Is 684, which is Emmanouel (Ἐμμανουήλ).

The name Emmanuel or Immanuel is also used by early Christian apologists. Here are English translations of three uses of the Greek Ἐμμανουήλ. Each of these is citing Isaiah 7:14.

4 Ireneus 33:11 “… Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and his name shall be called Immanuel ….”

Trypho 43 “… Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and his name shall be called Immanuel ….

Trypho 66 “… Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel….”

Online French Dictionaries

December 7, 2007 at 11:01 pm | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment
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Le grand dictionnaire (This is probably the best online French – English dictionary.)
http://www.granddictionnaire.com/btml/fra/r_motclef/index800_1.asp

Le trésor de la langue française informatié (An excellent resource; Another option is to purchase this module for your Mac or PC. The purchased module runs through your web browser while you are off-line.)
http://atilf.inalf.fr/tlfv3.htm
http://atilf.atilf.fr/dendien/scripts/tlfiv4/showps.exe?p=combi.htm;java=no;

Collins English – French Dictionary On-line
http://french.about.com/library/bl-collins-ef.htm

Lexilogos: dictionnaire françois (You can choose from a number of online dictionaries.)
http://lexilogos.com/francais_langue_dictionnaires.htm

Dictionnaire (Encarta)
http://fr.ca.encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/dictionary/dictionaryhome.aspx

Oxford Dictionaries Online (by subscription; including the unabridged Oxford French Hachette Dictionary [4th ed])
http://www.oup.com/online/oldo/

English-French Dictionary of Common Computing Terms
http://www.css.qmul.ac.uk/foreign/eng-french.htm

Nomenclature du Dictionnaire de l’Académie françoise 1694 (This might be helpful in dealing with older texts.)
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wulfric/academie/acad1694/94nindex.htm

Dictionnaire du droit privé (Serge Braudo; definition of legal terms)
http://www.dictionnaire-juridique.com/

Tiscali French Phrase Finder
http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/phrases/french/

Dictionnaire (French Architectural Terms)
http://www.chez.com/bernardmeyer/dictionnaire.html

Dictionnaire des définitions, des synonymes, des conjugaisons, français – anglais, anglais -français
http://dictionnaire.tv5.org/

ARTFL Project: French-English Dictionary Form
http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/ARTFL/forms_unrest/FR-ENG.html

Dictionnaire de la langue française
http://www.linternaute.com/dictionnaire/fr/

Dico des Synonymes (Laboratoire CRISCO – Centre de Recherches Inter-langues sur la Signification en COntexte)
http://elsap1.unicaen.fr/cgi-bin/cherches.cgi

Dictionnaires Collins en ligne
http://dictionnaire.reverso.net/
http://dictionnaire.reverso.net/francais-anglais/
http://dictionnaire.reverso.net/anglais-francais/

Banque de données terminologique (Service de la langue française, de Belgique; You can set the language of the word for French or English to get the French definition.)
http://www2.cfwb.be/franca/bd/bd.htm

Welcome to the Learn with the Bible Weblog

December 7, 2007 at 6:42 am | Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Welcome to the Learn French with the Bible weblog!

The purpose of this weblog is to provide an opportunity to pursue a greater acquisition of the French language by using French translations of the Bible. The idea for doing this came from helping a friend with French by e-mailing French scriptures with explanations.

By the Bible, I am referring to both the Hebrew scriptures and the New Testament. The Hebrew scriptures are what Christians call the Old Testament. However, Jews do not consider them to be an old covenant or testament. The term “Hebrew scriptures” is somewhat of a misnomer since parts of them were originally written in Aramaic, e. g., Daniel 2:4 – 7:28; Ezra 4:8-68; 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11; and a couple words in Genesis 31:47. Another term that is used for the Hebrew scriptures is Tanakh, an acronym formed from the titles of the three major divisions of the Hebrew canon, Torah (“Law”), Neviim (“Prophets”), and Khetuvim (“Writings”). I may also use French translations of deuterocanonical writings (the apocrypha) and other literature as well. Occasional comments on the original language of texts and the meaning of passages may also be provided.

The blog may interest those involved with theological studies as well as others interested in the French language. Many works in biblical studies, theology, papyrology, archaeology, ancient philology, etc. are written in French. Some doctoral programs in biblical studies require a competence in ancient Greek, Hebrew, and Latin as well as two modern languages. (Typically, German would be one of the modern languages chosen.)

Most of the French in this blog will be on an elementary level. For those interested in intermediate or advanced French, there are some links that may be helpful.

The presence of a link on the website does NOT imply an endorsement of the contents or materials. The links for materials may provide ideas for the student. I have NOT looked at or evaluated many of the materials mentioned.

It is important for a student of French to have a competent teacher, people with whom one can practice conversation, and adequate textbooks. Language is an interactive and social activity. It is much harder to learn a language without that practice and interaction.

For beginning students, it is helpful to have flash cards to help with vocabulary acquisition. One may have 10, 20, or 50 cards on hand at all times and review the cards as often as possible. However, it is important to realize that words do not have meanings in and of themselves. Words have meanings in context. Language cards usually have a simple gloss or definition of words. The cards normally do not include the full scope of uses of words and do not indicate how words are used in a particular context. It is good to hear and read as much of the language as possible to get a feel for the scope of words, phrases, idioms, and syntax.

Reading French news (such as in the news magazine Le Figaro), watching satellite TV, taking in internet radio and TV, receiving audio magazines, reading dual language books, etc. can all be a part of language acquisition. Again, I would like to refer students to the links.

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