Isaiah 7:14 = Ésaïe 7:14; Matthew 1:22-23 = Matthieu 1:22-23

December 17, 2007 at 3:16 am | Posted in Isaiah - Ésaïe, Matthew = Matthieu | Leave a comment
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C’est pourquoi le Seigneur lui-même vous donnera un signe,
Voici que la jeune fille est enceinte,
Elle enfantera un fils
Et lui donnera le nom d’Emmanuel
. (Isaiah 7:14)

le Seigneur [nom masculin] – the Lord
donnera [futur de donner] – give

futur simple
je donnerai – I shall give
tu donneras – he will give
il, elle donnera – he, she will give
nous donnerons – we shall give
vous donnerez – you will give
ils, elles donneront – they will give

Note the endings on the “infinitive form” to create the simple future.

signe [nom masculin] – sign

Note that “la jeune fille” is rendering the original Hebrew Ha’almah ‏עִמָּנוּ אֵל [HF(ALMFH].
“The” Greek translation of the original Hebrew is παρθένος [PARQENOS], which, in French, is vierge (virgin).

enceinte [adjectif féminin] – pregnant, expecting

enfantera [future de enfanter] = mettre au monde – to give birth to, to bring forth
This word is used in a literary way in the Bible.

futur simple
j’enfanterai
tu enfanteras
elle enfantera
nous enfanterons
vous enfanterez
elles enfanteront

fils [nom masculin] – son

nom [nom masculin] – name

Emmanuel – Most English translations use “Immanuel”, following a transliteration of the original Hebrew. This French translation follows a transliteration of the Greek translation of the Hebrew original.

In Hebrew ‘im means “with”. ‘immanu means “with us”.
In Hebrew ‘el means “God”.
So Immanuel means “God with us” or “God (is) with us”.

It is good first to look at how this verse was understood in the time the prophet Isaiah and of King Ahaz of Judah.
Then one looks at the verse as understood in a prophetic tradition.

(One might also note the use of “Immanuel” or “Emmanuel” in Isaiah 8:8.)
Isaiah 7:14 is used by the angel that appeared in a dream to Joseph in Matthew 1.

Matthew 1:22 Tout cela arriva afin que s’accomplisse ce que le Seigneur avait déclaré par le prophète:
23 Voici que la vierge sera enceinte;
elle enfantera un fils
Et on lui donnera le nom d’Emmanuel,
ce qui se traduit: Dieu avec nous.

arriva [passé simple de arriver] – Here it has sense of “happen, take place”.

passé simple
j’arrivai
tu arrivas
il, elle arriva
nous arrivâmes
vous arrivâtes
ils, elles arrivèrent

afin que – so that; in order that

s’accomplisse [subjonctif de s’accomplir] – to come true

présent et imparfait subjonctif
que j’accomplisse
que tu accomplisses
qu’il, elle accomplisse
que nous accomplissions
que vous accomplissiez
qu’ils, elles accomplissent
avait déclaré [plus-que-parfait de déclarer] – to announce, to state, to declare; to say

plus-que-parfait
j’avais déclaré – I had announced
tu avais déclaré
il, elle avait déclaré
nous avions déclaree
vous aviez déclaré
ils, elles avaient déclaré

Note that the plus-que-parfait (pluperfect or the past perfect) is formed by using the imperfect tense (imparfait) of avoir with the past participle (participe passé) of déclarer.

par [préposition] – by

prophète [nom masculin] – prophet

vierge [nom féminin] = pucelle – virgin

[Note that in Matthew 1, the French translates the Greek word παρθένος (PARQENOS) as vierge, which does mean “virgin”.]

sera [futur simple de être]

futur simple
je serai
tu seras
il, elle sera
nous serons
vous serez
ils, elles seront

se traduittraduire – translate
se traduit – “is translated”

présent – voix: pronominale [reflexive]
je me traduis
tu te traduis
il, elle se traduit
nous nous traduisons
vous vous traduisez
ils, elles se traduisent

Note that Matthew structures his Gospel with an inclusio, an inclusion. At the beginning of the Gospel, he understands the angel’s message to Joseph that Jesus is Emmanuel, i. e., God with us.
At the end of the Gospel of Matthew, in the Great Commission, Jesus says, “…and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age.” “Et voici, je suis avec vous tous les jours, jusqu’à la fin du monde.” (Matthew 28:28) These promises of Jesus’ presence bracket the Gospel of Matthew.

In addition, in the middle of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus also promises His presence, “For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them.” (Matthew 18:20) “Car là où deux ou trois sont assemblés en mon nom, je suis au milieu d’eux.”

The name Emmanuel or Immanuel occurs four times in “the” so-called Old Testament Pseudepigrapha in Greek. Here are English translations of these four passages.

3 Baruch 4:15 But God sent his angel Sarasael, and said to him, ‘Arise, Noah, and plant the shoot of the vine, for thus says the Lord: “Its bitterness shall be changed into sweetness, and its curse shall become a blessing, and that which is produced from it shall become the blood of God; and as through it the human race obtained condemnation, so again through Jesus Christ the Immanuel (Emmanuel) will they receive in Him the upward calling, and the entry into paradise.”’

Sol_a 6:8 But I say: “Explain to me by what angel are you thwarted.” He said: “By God Almighty. He is called by Hebrews Patike, the one who descends from the high places. He is (called) by the Greeks Emmanuel (Ἐμμανουήλ). Of him I am afraid, trembling. If someone adjures me by Eloi, a great name of his power, I vanish.”

Sol_a 11:6 But I said to him: “I adjure you by the name of the great God Most High — by what name are you thwarted, with your legion?” The demon said: “By the name of the one who submitted to suffer many things by men, whose name is Emmanouel (Ἐμμανουήλ), who also now has bound us and will come to torment us by the water at the cliff. With three characters he conjured up, moving about.

Sol_a 15:11 “And who should receive such authority over spirits, except that one? Who the first devil shall seek to tempt, but shall not be able to overpower him, whose name’s cipher Is 684, which is Emmanouel (Ἐμμανουήλ).

The name Emmanuel or Immanuel is also used by early Christian apologists. Here are English translations of three uses of the Greek Ἐμμανουήλ. Each of these is citing Isaiah 7:14.

4 Ireneus 33:11 “… Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and his name shall be called Immanuel ….”

Trypho 43 “… Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and his name shall be called Immanuel ….

Trypho 66 “… Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and shall bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel….”

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