Micah 5:2 = Michée 5:1

December 21, 2007 at 11:34 pm | Posted in Micah = Michée | Leave a comment
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Et toi, Bethléhem Éphrata
Toi qui es petite parmi les milliers de Juda,
De toi sortira pour moi
Celui qui dominera sur Israël
Et dont l’origine remonte au lointain passé,
Aux jours d’éternité.
(Micah 5:2 = Michée 5:1)

parmi [préposition] – among, amongst

millier [nom masculin] = mille – thousand

The Hebrew phrase here ‏בְּאַלְפֵי יְהוּדָה be’alfei Yehudah, has the word ‏אֶלֶף ‘elef, meaning “thousand”. The word was used in the sense of a “group of a thousand, military, part of a tribe”, it came to mean clan. Then it took on the sense of region (Deuteronomy 33:17; 1 Samuel 23:23; Joshua 22:30; here in Micah 5:2 [5:1 in Hebrew and French]) and even later tribe (Numbers 1:16; 10:36; 22:14; Joshua 22:21, 30; Isaiah 60:22.

The AV, ASV, NKJV translations in English would be similar to the French. But most English translations use “clans”. (Cf. Latin Vulgate milibus; Revised Luther, 1985 “Städten”; Buber / Rosenzweig, 1997, & Elberfelder, 1991,”Tausendschaften”; Einheitsübersetzung, 2004 “gauen”; Menge, 1994, “Gaustädten (= Hauptorten)”; Targum Jonathan ‏בְאַלפַיָא)

sortira [futur simple de sortir] – to go out; to leave

futur simple
je sortirai
tu sortiras
il, elle sortira
nous sortirons
vous sortirez
ils, elles sortiront

dominera [futur simple de dominer] – to dominate; to govern; to tower above; to control, to master, to overcome; to be in the dominant position, to be on top; to predominate

futur simple
je dominerai
tu domineras
il, elle dominera
nous dominerons
vous dominerez
ils, elles domineront

dont [pronom relatif] – whose, of which

remonte [présent de remonter] – to go back up, to come back up; to come back; to return; to go back

lointain, –e [adjectif] – faraway, distant, remote

passé, –é [participe passé de passer]
passé [adjectif] – last; past; faded
passé [nom masculin] – past; past tense

Hebrew ‏מִקֶּדֶם miqqedem – “from prehistoric times, since primeval time” (HALOT 5.a); ; AV, ASV, NRSV, NIV, ESV, NKJV “from of old”; REB “far back in the past”; NET “in the distant past”

jour [nom masculin]

éternité [nom féminin]

Micah 5:2 (1) was used in Matthew 2 by the chief priests and scribes when Herod the Great (37 – 4 B. C.) asked them about the location of the birth of the messiah. (Matthew 2:4-6)

The gentile magi (wise men) ascertained from the star in the East (τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ TON ASTERA EN THi ANATOLNi) the general location of “the king of the Jews”. However, they needed the Scriptures to get the specific revelation of the birth of the anointed one (messiah, christ).

There were two places named “Bethlehem” in the Bible.

1) Bethlehem of Judah – 5 miles SSW of Jerusalem – It is mentioned by name thirty-eight times in the Hebrew scripture and eight times in the New Testament.

2) Bethlehem in the north in the tribe of Zebulun (Joshua 19:15; Judges 12:8-10) – The modern Arabic village Beit Lachm is 7 miles SW of Nazareth.

(The numbering in Hebrew and French translation is different than that in English translations. One might note that the original Hebrew had no numbering. It was added later.)


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