Interview avec Albert Schweitzer (en français)

February 4, 2008 at 12:02 am | Posted in Culture, Video = Vidéo | Leave a comment

Here is an interview in French on with Albert Schweitzer from February 2, 1961, in Lambaréné, Gabon, Africa.

Docteur Albert Schweitzer

Schweitzer (1875 – 1965) was born in Haut-Rhin, Kayserberg, a German-speaking area of Alsace, which was then a part of Germany. He studied in Strasbourg, Berlin, Tübingen, and Paris. He was a musician, philosopher, theologian, medical doctor, and humanitarian.

He received the Goethe Prize (Goethepreis der Stadt Frankfurt am Main) in 1928 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.

His best-known work in theology was his The Quest of the Historical Jesus, which took a skeptical approach to the New Testament picture of Jesus as well as liberal 19th century reconstructions. The quest was like looking into a well and seeing your own reflection at the bottom.

For more information on Schweitzer, I would recommend his Out of My Life and Thought: An Autobiography.

Many organ recordings made by Schweitzer are still available. I have enjoyed his two-volume biography of Bach.

Matthew 3:13-17 = Matthieu 3:13-17

February 3, 2008 at 8:01 pm | Posted in Matthew = Matthieu | Leave a comment
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Matthew 3:13 = Matthieu 3:13 Alors Jésus vint de la Galilée au Jourdain vers Jean, pour être baptisé par lui.

alors [adverbe] – then

vint [passé simple de venir] – come
(In Greek, the historical present παραγίνεται PARAGINETAI is used to add vividness to the narrative.)

passé simple
je vins
tu vins
il, elle vint
nous vînmes
vous vîntes
ils, elles vinrent

au [contraction à = le = au]

le Jourdainthe Jordan (River)

vers [préposition] – [direction] toward(s), to

Jean (en Français) = John (in English) = Ἰωάννης IWANNHS Ioannes (in Greek) = Iohannes (in Latin) = ‏יוֹחָנָן YOXFNFN (in Hebrew) = Johannes (in German) – It’s important for English speaking people to realize that “Jean” is a male’s name in French.

être baptisé [voix: passive de baptiser]
(In Greek, the articular infinitive τοῦ βαπτισθῆναι TOU BAPTISQHNAI [tou baptisthenai] is used here to express a sense of purpose.)

par [préposition] – by

Matthew 3: 14 = Matthieu 3:14 Mais Jean s’y opposait en disant:
C’est moi qui ai besoin d’être baptisé par toi
et c’est toi qui viens à moi!

s’opposait [imparfait de s’opposer] – [+ mesure, mariage, progrès] to oppose; [+ parents] to rebel against; [sujet: opinions, théories] to conflict; [sujet: immeubles] to face each other; [sujet: rivaux, partis] to clash (à: with); [sujet: équipes, boxeurs] to confront each other, to meet; [sujet: couleurs, styles] to contrast (à: with)

Note that the Greek uses διεκώλυεν DIEKWLUEN (diekoluen), which is the imperfect of διακωλύω DIAKWLUW (diakoluo) to keep something from happening, prevent, implying repeated action. “he tried to prevent him

A. T. Robertson, WP, understands it as a conative imperfect (“tried to prevent”). So DA Carson (EBC), Donald Hagner (WBC-NT).

Marvin Vincent, WS, comments, “The A.V., following Wyc. and Tynd., misses the meaning of the verb. As in so many instances, it overlooks the force of the imperfect tense, which expresses past action, either in progress or in process of conception, in the agent’s mind. John did not forbid Jesus, but had it in mind to prevent him: was for hindering him. Hence RV., properly, would have hindered him.”

je m’opposais
tu t’opposais
il, elle s’opposait
nous nous opposions
vous vous opposiez
ils, elles s’opposaient

disant [participe présent de dire] – to say
en disant – saying λέγων LEGWN (legon)

besoin [nom masculin] – need
avoir besoin de quelque chose; to need something, to be in need of something; to want something

viens [présent de venir] – come

je viens
tu viens
il, elle vient
nous venons
vous venez
ils, elles viennent

(Note that many would punctuate this as a question, e. g., the editors of NA27, NRSV “…and do you come to me?”, etc.)

Matthew 3: 15 = Matthieu 3:15 Jésus lui répondit: Laisse faire maintenant, car il est convenable que nous accomplissions ainsi toute justice. Alors Jean le laissa faire.

répondit [passé simple de répondre] – answer, reply

passé simple
je répondis
tu répondis
il, elle répondit
nous répondîmes
vous répondîtes
ils, elles répondirent

laisse [impératif présent de laisser] – to leave
laisser (quelqu’un) faire quelque chose – too let somebody do something

The Greek ἄφες ἄρτι AFES ARTI has the 2 aorist imperative of ἀφίημι AFIHMI (aphiemi) used in the sense of “let it be so, let it go.”
NRSV, NIV “let it be so now”
REV “let it be so for now”
NET “let it happen now”
NKJV “permit it to be so now”
Luther (1995) “lass es jetzt gesehen”
Elberfelder “laß es jetzt [so sein]”
Menge (1994) “Laß es für diesmal geshehen (oder: so sein)”

maintenant (adverbe) – now

convenable (adjectif) – fitting, suitable, appropriate

accomplissions [présent subjonctif de accomplir] – to carry out; to achieve; to accomplish; to fulfil; to perform; to complete

présent subjonctif
que j’accomplisse
que tu accomplisses
qu’il, elle accomplisse
que nous accomplissions
que vous accomplissiez
qu’ils, elles accomplissent

ainsi [adverbe] – in this way, in this manner; [littéraire = en consequence] thus; [= donc] so; [littéraire = de même] so, in the same way

Greek οὕτως hOUTWS (houtos) – in this manner, thus, so
RSV “for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness”
NRSV “for it is proper for us in this way to fulfill al righteousness”
NIV “it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness”
REB “it is right for us to do all that God requires”
NET “for it is right for us to fulfill all righteousness”
ESV “for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness”
ASV “for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness”
Luther (1995), Menge “Denn so gebührt es uns, alle Gerechtigkeit zu erfüllen”
Modern Hebrew

‏הַנַּח כָּעֵת, כִּי מִן הָרָאוּי שֶׁנְּקַיֵּם אֶת הַצֶּדֶק כֻּלּו


justice [nom féminin] – fairness; justice
Greek δικαιοσύνη DIKAIOSUNH (dikaiosune) – Here it has a specialized use of “…the quality or characteristic of upright behavior, uprightness, righteousness….” It is used “…of specific action righteousness in the sense of fulfilling divine expectation not specifically expressed in ordinances….” BDAG 3b, p. 248

Spicq comments, “In the NT, we must immediately distinguish between the dikaiosyne taught by St. Paul and that of the evangelists and the non-Pauline epistles.50 In this last category of writings, all the occurrences are conformable to the LXX,51 always with a nuance befitting the “ethics” of the new covenant.”

laissa [passé simple]

passé simple
je laissai
tu laissas
il, elle laissa
nous laissâmes
vous laissâtes
ils, elles laissèrent

Alors Jean le laissa faire
Note that “Jean” is not in the Greek but is added for a clarification of the verb’s subject.
Greek τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτόν TOTE AFIHSIN AUTON (tote afiesin auton)
NRSV “Then he consented”
NIV “Then John consented”
REB “Then John allowed him to come”
NET “Then John yielded to him”

Matthew 3: 16 = Matthieu 3:16 Aussitôt baptisé, Jésus sortit de l’eau.
Et voici: les cieux s’ouvrirent,
il vit l’Esprit de Dieu descendre comme une colombe et venir sur lui.

aussitôt [adverbe] – immediately, straight away
aussitôt baptisé – as soon as he was baptized

Greek βαπτισθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εὐθὺς ἀνέβη ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος .
The aorist participle βαπτισθεὶς BAPTISQEIS (baptistheis) implies that the action of being baptized took place before the action of the main verb ἀνέβη ANEBH (anebe) “he went up”.

Note that the baptism is simply recorded with a participle and not in the main clause.

sortit [passé simple de sortir] = quitter – to leave, to come out
sortir de l’eau – to come out of the water

passé simple
je sortis
tu sortis
il, elle sortit
nous sortîmes
vous sortîtes
ils, elles sortirent

cieux [pluriel littéraire de ciel – nom masculin] – sky, heavens, heaven

ouvrirent [passé simple de s’ouvrir] – to open

passé simple
je m’ouvris
tu t’ouvris
il, elle s’ouvrit
nous nous ouvrîmes
vous vous ouvrîtes
ils, elles s’ouvrirent

vit [passé simple de voir] – to see

passé simple
je vis
tu vis
il, elle vit
nous vîmes
vous vîtes
ils, elles virent

Esprit [nom masculin] – Spirit

descendre – to go down, descend

colombe [nom féminin] – dove

Matthew 3: 17 = Matthieu 3:17 Et voici qu’une voix fit entendre des cieux ces paroles:
Celui-ci est mon Fils bien-aimé,
en qui j’ai mis toute mon affection.

voix [nom féminin] – voice

fit [passé simple de faire]

passé simple
je fis
tu fis
il, elle fit
nous fîmes
vous fîtes
ils, elles firent

entendre – to hear
faire entendre sa voix – to make oneself heard

καὶ ἰδοὺ φωνὴ ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν λέγουσα KAI IDOU FWNH EK TWN OURANWN LEGOUSA
RSV “and lo, a voice from heaven, saying”
NRSV, NIV, NET “And a voice from heaven said,”
REV “And there came a voice from heaven saying”
ESV “and behold, a voice from heaven said”
Luther (1985) “Und siehe, eine Stimme vom Himmel herab sprach”

cieux (pl. littér. de ciel) – sky; heavens


Who, in Hebrew scripture, was the called a beloved son?
In “the” Greek translation of the Hebrew, Isaac is called a beloved son in the Akkedah, the Binding of Isaac.
RSV – Gen. 22:2 He said, “Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love,…

‏וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק

Greek καὶ εἶπεν λαβὲ τὸν υἱόν σου τὸν ἀγαπητόν ὃν ἠγάπησας τὸν Ισαακ
NETS – And he said, “Take your beloved son Isaak, whom you love….

RSV – Gen 22:12 … seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.”

‏וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי

Greek – … καὶ οὐκ ἐφείσω τοῦ υἱοῦ σου τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ δι᾿ ἐμέ
NETS – …and for my sake you have not spared your beloved son.”

RSV – Gen. 22:16 … because you have done this, and have not withheld your son, your only son, …

‏כִּי יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידֶךָ

Greek – … οὗ εἵνεκεν ἐποίησας τὸ ῥῆμα τοῦτο καὶ οὐκ ἐφείσω τοῦ υἱοῦ σου τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ δι᾿ ἐμέ …
NETS – Inasmuch as you have carried out this matter and for my sake have not spared your beloved son, …

Some have suggested that with the voice from heaven at the baptism, three traditions come to mind.

1) The Akkedah, the Binding of Isaac (Genesis 22) – In contrast to Isaac, compare Romans 8:32.

2) The so-called Servant Songs

Isaiah 42:1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon him, he will bring forth justice to the nations.

3) A Royal Psalm (Psalm 2), that was early interpreted as referring to messiah.
Psa. 2:2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and his anointed [Hebrew ‏מְשִׁיחוֹ M:$IXW meshicho; Greek τοῦ χριστοῦ αὐτοῦ TOU CRISTOU AUTOU tou christou autou], saying,…
Psa. 2:6 “I have set my king on Zion, my holy hill.”
Psa. 2:7 I will tell of the decree of the LORD: He said to me, “You are my son, today I have begotten you.

j’ai mis [passé composé de mettre]

passé composé
j’ai mis
tu as mis
il, elle a mis
nous avons mis
vous avez mis
ils, elles ont mis

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